Glossary            Back to Reference Index


+ = Compares any stat to League, expressed as an index (multiplied by 100). For example, if a hitter had a .330 batting average in a league that hit .300, his BA+ would be 330/300 x 100 = 110.

2B = Doubles

3B = Triples

AB = At Bats

BA = Batting Average: H/AB

BB = Base on Balls or Walk

BBF = Base on Balls Factor (PA/BB)

CHS = Current Hit Streak

CS = Caught Stealing (caught stealing numbers are only available for the seasons between 1914-16 and after 1919 in the AL, in 1915, 1920-25 and after 1950 in the NL)

G = Games

GDP, GIDP = Grounded Into Double Plays

GWRBI = Game-Winning Run Batted In: a H, SF, BB, HBP or CI that drives in the winning run.

H = Hits

HBP = Hit by Pitch (first counted in 1887)

HR = Home Runs

HRF = Home Run Factor (AB/HR)

IBB = Intentional Base on Balls (first counted in 1955)

ISO = Isolated Power (SLG – BA)

K = Strikeouts

KF = Strikeout Factor (PA/K)

OBP = On-Base Percentage: (H+BB+HBP)/(AB+BB+SF+HBP) (SF and HBP are assumed to be zero if unavailable; see SF and HBP below)

OPS = On-Base Percentage + Slugging Percentage

PA = Plate Appearances: AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + CI

Outs = AB - H + CS + GIDP + SH + SF

R = Runs

RBI = Runs Batted In

RC = Runs Created – a one-number attempt to quantify the entire contribution of a player's offensive statistics. It typically involves some positive value for things like hits, walks, steals, home runs, etc. and negative values for outs, caught stealing and GIDP. There are 24 different versions of the Runs Created depending on the stats available in the player’s era. The most basic is (H + BB) * (TB) divided by Plate Appearances (PA). We use (H + BB + HBP - CS - GIDP) times (Total Bases + .26(TBB - IBB + HBP) + .52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF).

RC/27 = Runs Created per 27 outs – The number of runs per nine innings (27 outs) a team made up of eight of the same player would score. It’s actually based on league average outs per team game. The formula: ((RC x 3 x LgIP) / (2 x LgG)) / (AB – H +SH + SF + CS + GIDP).

RC600 = Runs Created per 600 at bats (RC/(ab/600))

SB = Stolen Bases

SEC = Secondary Average: (TB - H + TBB + SB - CS) / AB

SF = Sacrifice Flies (first counted in 1954; included in Sacrifice Hits up to 1953)

SH = Sacrifice Hits or Bunts (first counted in 1895 and included Sacrifice Flies until 1953)

SLG = Slugging Percentage: Total Bases/At Bats (see TB below)

SO = Strikeouts or K's (hit-and-miss between 1882 and 1912)

TB = Total Bases: Singles + 2x2B + 3x3B + 4xHR


+ = Compares any stat to League, expressed as an index (multiplied by 100). For example, if a pitcher had a 3.00 ERA in a league with an ERA of 4.00, his ERA+ would be 300/400 x 100 = 75; but we would show it as 125, because we express all good numbers as over 100 and all bad numbers as under 100.

BB = Bases on Balls

BB9, BB/9 = Bases on Balls per 9 innings

BF, BFP = Batters Faced by Pitcher

BK = Balks

BR9 = Base Runners per 9 innings

BS = Blown Saves (see definition of Saves). Any time a pitcher comes into a save situation and loses the lead.

CG = Complete Games

CERA (see ERC) = Component Earned Run Average

ER = Earned Runs

ERA = Earned Run Average: (ERx9)/IP

ERC = Component Earned Run Average: A statistic that estimates what a pitcher's ERA should have been, based on his pitching performance.


PTB (Pitcher’s Total Bases) in the formula is calculated as:


Where IBB data is not available:


Also, if the ERC is less than 2.24 the formula is adjusted as follows: ERC=(((H+BB+HBP)*PTB)/(BFP*IP))*9*.75

G = Games pitched

GF = Games Finished

GS = Games Started

H = Hits

H/9 = Hits allowed per 9 innings pitched

HBP = Hit By Pitch

Holds = A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Opportunity (SVOP, see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead. Note: a pitcher can neither finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor earn a Hold and a Save in the same game.

HR = Home Runs allowed

HR/9 = Home Runs allowed per 9 innings pitched

IBB = Intentional Bases on Balls

IP = Innings Pitched

K = Strikeouts

K9, K/9 = Strikeouts per 9 innings pitched

L = Losses

OAB = Opposition At Bats

OAVG = Opposition Batting Average: H / (BFP – BB – HBP – SH – SF – CI)

OOBP = Opposition On Base Percentage

OSLG = Opposition Slugging

PTB = Pitcher’s Total Bases (see ERC)

QS = Quality Start: Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs.

R = Runs

SF = Sacrifice Flies

SH = Sacrifice Hits

SHO = Shutouts

SO = Strikeouts

SV = Saves: A Relief Pitcher has a Save Opportunity (SVOP) when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions:

1. He has a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or

2. He enters the game with the potential tying run either on base, at bat, or on deck; or

3. He pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer credits him with a Save.

SVOP = Save Opportunities (see SV, definition of Saves)

W = Wins

WHIP = (Walks + Hits)/Innings Pitched

WIN% = Winning Percentage: Wins / (Wins + Losses)

WP = Wild Pitches


+ = Compares any stat to League, expressed as an index (multiplied by 100). For example, if a fielder had a 3.3 Range Factor in a league in which his position had a Range Factor of 3, his RF+ would be 330/300 x 100 = 110.

A = Assists

A/9 = Assists per 9 innings

Avg = Fielding Average: (PO + A) / (PO + A + E)

CI = Catcher’s Interference

DER = Defensive Efficiency Record: The percent of times a batted ball is turned into an out by the teams' fielders, not including home runs. The formula we use is (BF-H-K-BB-HBP-0.6*E)/(BF-HR-K-BB-HBP).

DP = Double Plays

E = Errors

G = Games at position

Inn = Innings at position

PB = Passed Balls

PK = For pitchers and catchers, the number of times the player made a pickoff throw that successfully retired a runner.

PO = Putouts

PO/9 = Putouts per 9 innings

Pos = Position

RF = Range Factor: ((PO + A) x 9) / Innings

SB% = Caught Stealing Percentage for Catchers: SB/(SB+CS)


INJ:DAYS = The total number of days a player has been out injured.

INJ:IP/DAYS = The number of innings a player has played or pitched per day out injured (so the higher the number, the less frequent have been the player’s days out injured).

INJ:IP/NUM = The number of innings a player has played or pitched per injury (regardless of length) he has had (so the higher the number, the less frequent have been the player’s injuries).

INJ:MAXDAYS = The longest injury (in days) a player has had.

INJ:NUM = The total number of injuries (regardless of length) that the player has had.

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